Global warming has been the current problem and its effects are been faced by us directly or indirectly. Hence, the causes and effects are explained in this article.

In the last few years, India and many other countries have been facing unusual climatic changes like some unseasonable rainfall, the warmer temperature during cold seasons, etc. This situation is a direct result of various human activities and interference with natural processes. The use of private vehicles around us has just aggravated this situation.

Even for travelling small distances we prefer to take our cars or motorcycles along. Petrol and diesel are the sources of energy for these cars and vehicles. When petrol or diesel is burnt, it emits out smoke. This smoke has a lot of gases, especially carbon dioxide (CO2) which is let out into the environment.

The level of CO2 is increasing every day, which is affecting the overall composition of other gases like oxygen, nitrogen, which are essential for our well being. The global average atmospheric carbon dioxide in 2017 was 405.0 parts per million (ppm), with a range of unreliability of plus or minus 0.1 ppm.

9 out of 10 people around the world breathe polluted air, according to a report released by the World Health Organization (WHO). An "alarming" 7 million people die each year from air pollution as air pollution levels remain dangerously high in many parts of the world.

Carbon dioxide levels today are higher than at any point in at least the past 800,000 years. Due to these reasons people are suffering from various diseases, specifically the diseases related to breathing and affects the respiratory functions.

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Increased level of CO2 gas is causing the environment to heat up, through the greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect is a process by which the solar radiation that is reflected back, gets trapped, which leads to the heating up the earth’s surface to a temperature above its normal. This heat remains on the surface of the earth for a long time. It cannot find space to escape out.  And hence, the entire earth as a globe is getting heated up. Therefore, this condition is called ‘Global Warming’.



A series of negative impacts are seen and experienced by nature. The melting of snow and ice glaciers in the Himalayan and other major regions causes the water level to rise in the rivers and sea. Due to which, we face the issues of flooding almost every monsoon. The aquatic environment is also affected by an increase in temperature. 

This global warming can be explained by an analogue of how the water boils. Initially, it takes time for the temperature to rise and then as temperature rises, the water starts boiling. In a similar way, the earth takes time to get heated; and once it exceeds the optimum temperature, it will start to boil and may eventually burst out. As a global citizen, we should find solutions to reduce global warming and for a better and secure future for the next generation. 


Editor: Anomitra Dey
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2. Meinshausen, M., Meinshausen, N., Hare, W., Raper, S. C., Frieler, K., Knutti, R., & Allen, M. R. (2009). Greenhouse-gas emission targets for limiting global warming to 2 C. Nature, 458(7242), 1158.
3. Freeman, B. G., Lee‐Yaw, J. A., Sunday, J. M., & Hargreaves, A. L. (2018). Expanding, shifting and shrinking: The impact of global warming on species’ elevational distributions. Global ecology and biogeography, 27(11), 1268-1276.

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